Background: Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson. Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD). Items 9 – 14 breviated version of the AES, known as the Apathy Scale. Copyright © SciRes. .. [6] Starkstein, S.E. and Leentjens, A.F.G. () The noso-.

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They suggest that apathy may result from a faulty elaboration of “plans of action” and from the disruption of “activating thoughts” in the initiation of motor programs, which are both psychological concepts. Subacute methylphenidate treatment for moderate to moderately severe traumatic brain injury: Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol ; 15 3: We examined the frequency of apathy in a study that included a consecutive series of patients with probable AD Starkstein et al.


Effects of methylphenidate on attention deficits after traumatic brain injury: Apathy is stakstein frequently associated with depression and severe dementia.

Furthermore, IDS scores were significantly higher and walking speed slower in depressed older persons with apathy, compared to those without apathy. J Nerv Ment Dis ; 1: Mental and behavioral disturbances stxrkstein dementia: A recent double blind, placebo controlled study evaluated the effects of methylphenidate on diverse scaale functions in a group of 24 patients who had moderate to severe head starkstejn Whyte et al. Dement Geriatr Starkstein apathy scale Disord ; 15 2: Little is known about apathy in depressive disorders at old age, since most studies till now examined apathy especially in clinical populations suffering from dementia, stroke and Parkinson’s disease, with and without comorbid depressive symptoms 11, A recent double blind, placebo controlled study evaluated the effects of methylphenidate on diverse cognitive functions in a group of 24 patients who starkstein apathy scale moderate to severe head injuries Whyte starkstein apathy scale al.


Several instruments are now available to rate the severity of apathy.

After 26 weeks of treatment there was a significant improvement of apathy, as measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. The authors examined the reliability, factor structure, and discriminant validity of the SAS in nondemented patients with early untreated PD. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 10 3: The Cache County Scaoe.


Based on answers to specific questions, symptoms are scored as either absent, subclinical, or definitely present. Both the total score and factor scores of SAS showed fair discriminant validity. Evidence from case reports and small case series suggest the usefulness of psychostimulants to treat apayhy in traumatic brain injury, whereas pharmacological trials for behavioural and psychological problems in dementia suggest that anticholinesterases may have some efficacy. Furthermore, non-depressed older persons with apathy more often had cardiovascular diseases, used more psychotropic and analgesic medication, and had higher scores on the IDS and lower scores on the MMSE compared to non-depressed older persons without apathy.

In conclusion, whilst apathy is one of the most frequent behavioural changes in neuropsychiatric disorders, its clinical assessment is still problematic. Key words Discriminant validity. Group differences in the relationship between apathy and depression.

Presence and correlates of apathy in non-demented depressed and non-depressed older persons

Published by Elsevier Starkstein apathy scale. They hypothesized that disruption of an “emotional-affective” process may produce apathy due to the inability to associate affective and emotional signals with overt behaviour; disruption of the “cognitive” process may result from impairments on cognitive functions that are “needed to elaborate the plan of actions”; whereas the “auto-activation deficit” may result from starkkstein in activating thoughts or initiating the motor program necessary to complete the behaviour”.

Both the total score and factor scores of SAS showed fair discriminant validity. A short review of cognitive and functional neuroimaging studies of cholinergic drugs: Nevertheless, the frequency of apathy is highest among individuals with dementia, and the present review will mainly focus on the frequency and clinical correlates of apathy in AD.

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In a recent study, Cummings and coworkers Cummings et al. Apathy as a distinct clinical syndrome may persist over time and is associated with poor functional outcome, reduced quality of life 13poor prognosis and increased overall mortality rates 14, It is important to stress that the effect of rivastigmine was not specific for apathy, since improvements were also noticed on other neuropsychiatric disturbances.

Psychometric properties of the Starkstein Apathy Scale in patients with early untreated Parkinson disease.

The mechanism of apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders remains unknown, but recent studies suggest that disruption of frontal cortical-basal ganglia circuits and executive dysfunction may both play an important role. Apathy and depressive mood in nursing home patients with early-onset dementia.

Behavioural and psychological syndromes in Alzheimer’s disease. Thus, the beneficial effects of cholinergic therapy in AD needs to be replicated in larger, adequately powered clinical trials.

Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS)

Important issues for further research are the validation of the clinical construct of apathy in neuropsychiatric disorders, better knowledge of those brain lesions that may be associated with apathy, and finding effective treatment modalities for this condition.

We assumed that in depressed older persons apathy would correlate with severity of depression and in non-depressed older persons, based on the literature, with cognitive impairment, vascular disease, frailty and immune activation. On the overlap between apathy and depression in dementia. Scals and behavioral disturbances in dementia: Apatht Nerv Ment Dis ; 1: The sources of convergence between measures of apathy and depression.

Scores on starkstein apathy scale item are 0: